Vaccine against HIV is one of the most challenging medical research considered today even with all the advancement of mankind in science. But researchers from Canada have been praised for successfully passing the Phase 1 human clinical trial.
HIV Vaccine Drug from Canada
Researchers from the University of Western Ontario in Canada made a big leap by passing the Phase I of HIV vaccine clinical trial applied on humans. The introduced drug showed no adverse effects on all patients who participated in the trial.
This new HIV vaccine drug which passed Phase I has been developed by Dr Chil-Yong Kang and his team at the University Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, and it was supported by Sumagen Co Ltd in Canada.
According to the Newstatesman.com, the drug is the first and only representative HIV vaccine based on genetically modified killed whole virus which is similar to other diseases with vaccines such as polio, influenza, rabies and more.
"We infect the cells with a genetically modified HIV-1. The infected cells produce lots of virus, which we collect, purify and inactivate so that the vaccine won't cause AIDS in patients, but will trigger immune responses, Dr. Kang's said to an interview with Ontario Business Report, quoted by NewStateman.
Upcoming Challenges of the New HIV Vaccine
Dr. Kang's newly developed HIV vaccine needs to pass two more testing phases to become fully commercialised as the first vaccine against the deadly virus. The South Korean biotech firm, Sumagen, continues to sponsor, cite manufacturing and complies with USFDA requirements to bring the vaccine into the market.
"We are now preparing to take the next steps towards Phase II and Phase III clinical trials. We are opening the gate for pharmaceutical companies, government and charity organisation for collaboration to be one step close to the first commercialised HIV vaccine," stated by the CEO of Sumagen, Jung-Gee Cho, quoted by the WesternNews.
If the newly developed drug goes well with the two remaining phases, the vaccine will become fully commercialised in five years.
HIV Vaccine Characteristics
HIV vaccine is a type of vaccination which would either protect an individual who do not have HIV from contracting the virus or may give therapeutic effect on someone who does have HIV or AIDS. There is no HIV vaccine yet available in the market and many research projects are ongoing across the globe to create the first commercialised vaccine.
Creating a vaccine against HIV is very difficult due to the following factors:
1. Classic vaccines in the market mimics natural immunity against reinfection seen in individuals who recovered from infection. Almost no one recovers from AIDS via natural capabilities of the immune system.
2. Vaccines usually protect against diseases not infection. HIV infection may remain latent for years before causing the disease called AIDS.
3. Most vaccines use dead or weak but alive organisms to mimic immune response. HIV-1 that is killed does not cause natural immune response and using a live one is dangerous.
4. Usual vaccines are made to protect against infections from not so common encounters, but regular exposure to HIV can affect the effectiveness of the vaccine.
5. Most of the time, vaccines protect a person against infections through mucosal surfaces of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract. HIV infection usually occurs through genital contact - syphilis and gonorrhoea do not have vaccines.
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