Austerity reaches Brussels as EU tightens budget
By Mark John and Peter Griffiths | February 9, 2013 2:00 AM EST
European Union leaders neared agreement on the first ever cut in their common budget on Friday after almost 24 hours of talks, seeking to placate millions at home struggling through government cutbacks and recession.
The expected deal met the demands of northern European countries such as Britain and the Netherlands that wanted belt-tightening, while maintaining spending on farm subsidies and infrastructure to satisfy the likes of France and Poland.
It will be the first net reduction to the EU's long-term budget in the bloc's history, representing a decrease of around 3 percent on the last budget and shaving spending in areas from infrastructure to scientific research.
Last-minute haggling over precisely how to divide up the 960 billion euros (823.5 billion pounds) to be spent between 2014 and 2020 delayed a definitive agreement, but officials said a broad framework had been put in place.
"The 960 billion euro figure is aimed at finding a balance," said a French official in Brussels who declined to be named.
As well being signed off by all EU leaders, the deal must be still approved by the European Parliament, where leading legislators have already expressed opposition.
After negotiating through the night, leaders broke up for a rest, allowing German Chancellor Angela Merkel to swap her green jacket for a lilac one, and returned to a myriad of questions, including whether to reduce the burden on the Netherlands.
Mindful of their restive voters, Northern European states were adamant that as they shrink spending at home and grapple with the aftermath of the global financial crisis, the European Union had to do the same.
Around 12 billion euros was cut from the last budget proposal, made at a summit in November.
While vast, in annual terms the budget amounts to just 1 percent of total EU economic output.
The cuts agreed on Friday fell mainly on spending for cross-border transport, energy and telecoms projects, which were reduced by more than 11 billion euros. Pay and perks for EU officials - a top target for Britain - were lowered by around 1 billion euros, officials said.
Spending on agriculture was spared further cuts and there was an increase of about 1.5 billion euros on rural development over the seven years, satisfying France, Italy and Spain.
Even with a deal, around 40 percent of the spending will still be dedicated to farming and regional development, something that frustrates many northern European states, which want a more dynamic budget.
At the same time, officials said money had been set aside for growth-stimulating measures, for research and for structural funds to flow to countries worst hit in the economic crisis, including Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain.
There were also stipulations for green investment and 6 billion euros for a fund to combat youth unemployment via training and apprenticeships in countries such as Spain, Greece, Portugal and Ireland.
The deal still faces further hurdles, not least at the bloc's parliament in Strasbourg which can send back the package.
"The European Parliament will not accept this deficit budget if it is adopted in this way. That is certain," the parliament's president Martin Schulz said.
In recent weeks, Van Rompuy has been in touch with every EU leader to assess where the contours of an agreement may lie.
But reaching a deal was never going to be a simple question of cutting the total, since the budget also involves delicate negotiations over rebates - amounts countries get reimbursed after they have made contributions.
Denmark won a rebate of around 130 million euros a year, but the Netherlands looked set to lose a portion of its rebate.
Because of a difference in the way the budget is calculated, there are two numbers - both the headline 'commitments' figure which sets a ceiling on how much can be paid out, and a lower 'payments' figure that indicates what will actually be spent.
The baseline payments figure in the framework agreed on Friday was 908.4 billion euros, a figure low enough to convince Britain, which focuses on payments rather than commitments, that it was getting a satisfactory deal.